Chemical differences between synthetic and natural caffeine can lead to different physiological effects. Consumers want naturally sourced ingredients, and caffeine is no exception.
Both natural and synthetic caffeine have the same molecular formula – C8H10N4O2. However, there are chemical differences between them. Natural caffeine is a crystalline 4/5 hydrate. This means that one molecule of caffeine contains between 4 and 5 molecules of water in crystalline form. On the other hand, synthetic caffeine is anhydrous. This means that it is amorphous and does not contain any water molecules. This is one property that leads to different physiological actions.
There are other chemical differences between natural and synthetic caffeine. Synthetic caffeine can be distinguished from natural caffeine using radioisotope analysis because there are different radioisotopes of carbon in the natural form vs the synthetic form. This is due to the different sources of the carbon molecules in caffeine. In fact, this highly sophisticated chemical analysis can be used to chemically distinguish synthetic from natural caffeine. Additionally, synthetic caffeine is fluorescent. This means that it emits light. These radioisotope and fluorescent properties of synthetic caffeine could be potentially concerning.
Although the basic chemical formula of caffeine is the same, whether it is naturally extracted from tea or synthesized chemically, most people assume that the health effects are the same. There are a number of health experts that believe that natural caffeine behaves differently from synthetic caffeine, based on their experiences. According to these experts, synthetic caffeine will absorb through the digestive system much faster than natural caffeine. This means a quicker spike, but it also means a quicker crash – and this is the key problem with synthetic caffeine.
Additionally, there is evidence that blood glucose response is different between synthetic and natural caffeine. Researchers investigated why acute synthetic caffeine ingestion leads to impaired glucose tolerance, while chronic consumption of naturally sourced caffeine may actually decrease the risk of development of Type II diabetes. They found differences in blood glucose and insulin levels and differences in C-peptide responses.
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